The Nanopore™ surface is a patented calcium oxidized, nano-porous surface that features 3-dimensional interconnecting porosities.
This unique surface developed at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, consists of a thin layer of nano-porous titanium oxide that is saturated with 11% calcium. The characteristics of this unique and innovative surface optimize tissue response, stimulate early bone deposition and enhance osseointegration.
The Nanopore™ surface is supported by 8 years of intensive research and a score of internationally published research articles. These publications demonstrate significantly pronounced levels of osteoconductivity leading to higher levels of bone to implant contact as compared to plain anodic oxidation or etched and blasted implant surfaces.
Further reference literature:
Sul YT, Johansson CB, AlbrektssonT . Oxidized titanium screws coated with calcium ions and their performance in rabbit bone. Int J Maxillofac Implants A 2002;17(5):625-634.
Sul YT, Johansson CB , Jeong Y , Wennerber A, Albrektsson T. Resonance frequency and removal torque analysis of implants with turned and anodized surface oxides. Clin Oral ImplantsRes. B . 2002;13(3):252-259.
Sul YT, Johansson CB , Kang Y , Jeong D G, Albrektsson T . Bone reactions to oxidized titanium implants with electrochemical anion sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid incorporation. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res.C 2002;4(2):78-87.
Sul YT, Byon ES, Jeong Y . Biomechanical measurements of calcium-incorporated oxidized implants in rabbit bone: effect of calcium surface chemistry of a novel implant. Clin Implant Dent Rel Res. 2004;6(2):101-110.
Suh JY, Jeung OC, Choi BJ, Park JW. Effects of a novel calcium titanate coating on the osseointegration of blasted endosseous implants in rabbit tibiae. Clin Oral Implants Res.2007;( Epub)
Arvidsson A , Franke-stenport V, Andersson M, Kjellin P, Sul YT, Wennerberg A . Formation of calcium phosphates on titanium implants with different surface preparations. An in-vitro study. Accepted for publication.
Fröjd V, Franke-StenpoV, Meirelles L, Wennerberg A . Increased bone contact to a calcium-incorporated oxidized commercially pure titanium implant: an in-vivo study in rabbits, Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg (2008) doi:10.1016/j.ijom.2008.01.020).
Sul YT. The significance of the surface properties of oxidized titanium to the bone response: special emphasis on the potential biochemical bonding of oxidized titanium implants. Biomaterials 2 03;24:389-33 907.
Sul YT, Jeong Y, Johansson C, Albrektsson T. Oxidized bioactive implants are rapidly and strongly integrated into bone. Clin oral Implants Res. A 2006:17(5):521-526.
Sul YT, Johansson C, Albrektsson T . Which surface properties enhance bone response to implants? Comparison of oxidized magnesium, TiUnite and Osseotite Implant surfaces.Int J Prosthodont B 2006;19(4):319-328.
Sul YT, Johansson C, Byon E , Albrektsson T . The bone response of oxidized bioactive and non-bioactive titanium implants. Biomaterials 2005;26(33):6720-6730
3-dimensional interconnected nano-porosity
The Nanopore™ surface with its calcium deposits and 3-dimensional interconnecting nano-porosity comes as close to nature as possible. The SEM picture of the surface bears a striking resemblance to and almost mirrors the microstructure of human cancellous bone. This unique surface topography provides an optimized osteoconductive environment for mechanical interlocking by bone apposition.
calcium reinforced surface chemistry
The reinforcement of osseointegration with Nanopore™ is influenced by two primary factors which are mechanical interlocking and chemical bonding.
The moderately rough surface with 3-dimensional interconnecting porosities provide the osteoconductive characteristics to enhance mechanical interlocking of bone onto the implant surface. The chemical bonding is derived from the calcium deposited surface chemistry characteristic of Nanopore™. These two factors contribute to the documented enhanced osseointegration values of the Nanopore™ surface during development at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden*.
These mechanical and chemical bonding characteristics provide a greater degree of primary stability to the implant, thereby allowing for early or immediate loading in select indications.*(Dept of Biomaterial Sciences/Handicap Research, institute for Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden Gothenburg
A significant increase of bone contact was found for smooth Sa < 0.5 μm but more densely peaked calcium incorporated oxidized implants when compared to somewhat rougher Sa = 0.5-1.0 μm oxidized or blasted implants. ( Frojd V, et al., Increased bone contact to a calcium-incorporated oxidized commercially pure titanium implant: an in-vivo study in rabbits, Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg (2008) doi:10.1016/j.ijom.2008.01.020)
optimized surface roughness
In a review* focusing on topographic and chemical properties of different implant surfaces, moderately rough surfaces such as the Nanopore™ surface showed stronger bone response than relatively smoother or rougher surfaces. Rough surfaces such as the aggressively etched and blasted or the plasma sprayed surfaces have an increased incidence of peri-implantitis due to the increased risk of retaining bacteria when exposed to the oral environment.*(Albrektsson T, Wennerberg A. Oral implant surfaces: Part 1-Review focusing on topographic and chemical properties of different surfaces and in vivo response to them. Int J Prosthodont 2004;17:536-543. Albrektsson T, Wennerberg A. Oral implant surfaces: Part 1-Review focusing on clinical knowledge of different surfaces.Int J Prosthodont 2004;17:544-564.)
optimized surface roughness
The moderately rough Nanopore™ surface with an Sa Value of < 0.5 microns offers the benefits of a rough surface for early bone apposition combined with an optimized soft tissue friendly smoother surface, without the negative characteristics of thicker
and rougher anodic oxidation or etched and blasted surfaces.
documented and certified
Repeated and reproducible studies show reinforcement and osseointegration by mechanical interlocking and chemical bonding between bone and implant on the Nanopore™ surface.
All Myriad™ implants are made from Grade IV titanium, which is the most documented and strongest grade of commercially available medical grade pure titanium.
The Nanopore™ surface is CE and US FDA certified.